Protection from and relief of pain and suffering are a fundamental feature of the human contract we make as parents, partners, children, family, friends, and community members, as well as a cardinal underpinning of the art and science of healing. Pain is part of the human condition; at some point, for short or long periods of time, we all experience pain and suffer its consequences.
Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic pain and allodynia. The diagnosis of FM has been one of exclusion as a test to confirm the diagnosis is lacking. Recent data highlight the role of the immune system in FM. Aberrant expressions of immune mediators, such as cytokines, have been linked to the pathogenesis and traits of FM.
Objective. To determine if peripheral neuropathology exists among the innervation of cutaneous arterioles and arteriole–venule shunts (AVS) in fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Setting. Cutaneous arterioles and AVS receive a convergence of vasoconstrictive sympathetic innervation, and vasodilatory small-fiber sensory innervation.
Results of a pain medication survey of people with fibromyalgia and other types of chronic pain found that 18% of patients were unable to fill prescriptions by pharmacists on at least one occasion despite having previously received these medications from the same pharmacy. Due to new rules and concerns about preventing drug abuse and misuse,